The participatory breeding
The current wheat breeding is based on selections in controlled environments where they are used considerable energy input. All this, in most cases, determines the obtaining of genotypes that constitute the varieties adapted to a standardized environment that is modified to make it uniform through agronomic interventions (herbicides, fertilizers). Once you have this variety, to nurture them, and get the most productive, you have to apply a range of agronomic techniques designed to change the environment and make it compatible with the variety grown, all this leads to an increase in energy expenditure resulting rise of ' carbon footprint (Carbon foot).
The participatory and evolutionary breeding determines an adaptation of the genotypes environment and not vice versa, consequently there is a significant energy savings.
The evolutionary breeding is normal in nature in the evolution of species and it is only by respecting the laws of nature that can be a substantial energy saving.
One of the most profound and direct impacts due to climate change in the coming decades will be on agriculture and food system. In fact, adaptation is the key factor that will solve the severe impacts of climate change on food production.
For thousands of years farmers have been the architects of the improvement and the multiplication of seeds, but today many of them are forced to acquire the seed through the seed industry, which have been selected to have a high uniformity. The consequence of this type of selection has led to a poor adaptability to different environments, so as to impose a greater contribution of input and a decrease in genetic variability while making crops very vulnerable to climate change.
Use species adapted to the growing environment is a model of sustainable agriculture suitable for all growing areas but especially for those marginal environments that have been abandoned because they provide limited productions with modern varieties.
The application of evolutionary breeding, with all the positive characteristics listed above, has as
natural consequence of saving energy inputs which involves not only a positive economic impact for farmers but also a significant positive impact in environmental terms. We know that in the last fifty years, agriculture has been the major source of pollution of soil and water. The accumulation of pollutants due to the massive fertilization and excessive use of pesticides has been reflected in a negative involution of farmland that, deprived of their inherent fertility and largely also the microfauna in the soil, have become mere substrates lifeless.
The high use of insecticides has compromised, and in some cases deleted, the life of useful insects soil and air. The use of seeds adapted to the growing environment is a way to meet the production needs without compromising the environmental balance.It's necessary to implement resilience even in agriculture and the ability of agricultural systems to trigger transformation processes adapting their crops to the local effects of climate change in accordance to European Commission's strategy adopted in 2013, which also aims to increased capacity to react to the impacts of climate change.